[27], In 1802, Napoleon Bonaparte proposed that Bernadotte head to New France to serve as governor of Louisiana, which was to be transferred back to French control following the Third Treaty of San Ildefonso. 3 févr. Bernadotte communicated Mörner's offer to Napoleon who at first treated the situation as an absurdity, but later came around to the idea and diplomatically and financially supported Bernadotte's candidacy. In November 1799 Bernadotte refused to assist Bonaparte’s coup d’état that ended the Directory but neither did he defend it. Resting on the French Left, Bernadotte's corps was battered during the night but resisted the full fury of the Austrian attack facing superior numbers. At a critical moment an entire Saxon division went over to his army in response to a proclamation released a week prior in which Bernadotte invited the Saxons to join their old commander in defeating Napoleon. In January 1798 Bernadotte was expected to succeed Bonaparte in command of the army of Italy but instead was appointed ambassador to Vienna until April, when his mission ended. Louis XIV de Charles Le Brun (1619-1690, France) | Reproductions D'art De Musée Charles Le Brun | WahooArt.com. [40] Bernadotte wrote to Napoleon that "I see my efforts perpetually paralyzed by a hidden force over which I can not prevail. Bernadotte’s dream dissolved, and his brief visit to Paris after the armistice was not glorious. At the Battle of Wagram (5 July 1809), he entered battle with his Saxon corps, to which the division of Dupas was attached and which formed his reserve. Charles was born in Stockholm during the reign of his grandfather Charles XIV John, he joined the military on 1834, his brother Oscar I got succeeded after the death of Charles John. [33] At the same time, he converted from Roman Catholicism to the Lutheranism of the Swedish court; Swedish law required the monarch to be Lutheran. His fresh troops, reinforced by 30,000 Prussians, joined the fray against the already battered French lines where Swedish forces entered battle in numbers for the first time in the campaign. [33] Many Swedes expected him to reconquer Finland, which had been ceded to Russia; however, the Crown Prince was aware of its difficulty for reasons of the desperate situation of the state finance and the reluctance of the Finnish people to return to Sweden. The king had adopted a Danish prince, Charles August, as his son soon after his coronation, but he had died just a few months after his arrival. [24] Bernadotte was very dissatisfied; he finally accepted the post in Vienna, but had to quit owing to the disturbances caused by his hoisting the tricolour over the embassy. Charles XIV & III John, also Carl John, Swedish and Norwegian: Carl Johan (26 January 1763 – 8 March 1844) was King of Sweden (as Charles XIV John) and King of Norway (as Charles III John) from 1818 until his death and served as de facto regent and head of state from 1810 to 1818. Bernadotte's troops then captured Salzburg on 30 October. Charles André Joseph Marie de Gaulle (; French pronunciation: [ʃaʁl də ɡol] (listen); 22 November 1890 – 9 November 1970) was a French army officer and statesman who led Free France against Nazi Germany in World War II and chaired the Provisional Government of the French Republic from 1944 to 1946 in order to reestablish democracy in France. [17] When the French forced their way to Lübeck, the city became the target of large-scale looting and rampage by the French soldiers. An alliance was signed with Russia in April 1812, with Great Britain in March 1813—with the British granting a subsidy for the proposed conquest of Norway—and with Prussia in April 1813. After the Peace of Tilsit, in 1808, as well-liked governor of the Hanseatic towns, where he once again proved his administrative and diplomatic abilities,[55] he was to direct the expedition against Sweden, via the Danish islands, but the plan came to naught because of the want of transports and the defection of the Spanish contingent, which went back to Spain to fight against Napoleon at the start of the Peninsular War. MacMillan, New York. Barton, Sir Dunbar Plunket (1930). [121], Bernadotte is a primary supporting character in the historical fiction novel by New York Times Bestselling author Allison Pataki A Queen's Fortune: A Novel of Desiree, Napoleon, and the Dynasty that outlasted the Empire, that tells the life story of his wife (and Queen of Sweden and Norway) Desiree Clary. Charles John now had dreams of becoming king or “protector” of France, but he had become alienated from the French people, and the victorious allies would not tolerate another soldier in charge of French affairs. Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions. Bernadotte moved West as ordered, pursued by Bennigsen where he ably defeated the numerically superior Russian vanguard at Mohrungen (25 January 1807). Charles IV (18/19 June 1294 – 1 February 1328), called the Fair (le Bel) in France and the Bald (el Calvo) in Navarre, was last king of the direct line of the House of Capet, King of France and King of Navarre (as Charles I) from 1322 to 1328.Charles was the third son of Philip IV; like his father, he was known as "the fair" or "the handsome". Charles XIV John (Swedish and Norwegian: Karl XIV Johan; born Jean Bernadotte;[1] 26 January 1763 – 8 March 1844) was King of Sweden and Norway from 1818 until his death. Expand/collapse Charles XIV Papers, 1795-1805. [20] However, Dupuy was a close friend of Louis-Alexandre Berthier and this started a long-lasting feud between Bernadotte and Napoleon's Chief of Staff. We do not know how it may turn out. [33], Charles John, as the Commander-in-Chief of the Northern Army, successfully defended the approaches to Berlin and was victorious in battle against Oudinot in August and against Ney in September at the Battles of Großbeeren and Dennewitz. Recueil de lettres originales, de minutes et de pièces réunies par Gaignières, pour servir à l'histoire de France depuis le règne de Charles VII, jusqu'à celui de Louis XIV. [21], He had his first interview with Napoleon in Mantua and was appointed the commander of the 4th division. Smith, Digby (2001). Le 5 février 1818, il succède à Charles XIII sous le nom de Charles XIV Jean … 1813 Leipzig. Jean Bernadotte, later Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte, later Jean-Baptiste Jules Bernadotte, Barton, Dunbar Plunket (1930). [18][19] Upon receiving insult from Dominique Martin Dupuy, the commander of Milan, Bernadotte was to arrest him for insubordination. [23] Bernadotte was pleased with this appointment but Napoleon lobbied Talleyrand-Périgord, the Minister of Foreign Affairs, to appoint him to the embassy of Vienna instead. Prior to this, New Year’s was celebrated from 25 March 25 to 1 April according to the Roman calendar. Thereafter he marched to Poland in command of the French Left Wing, composed of his I Corps and Ney's VI Corps. Les meilleures offres pour France Royale - Ecu 1647 K Bordeaux Louis XIV, Qualité !! Valable aujourd'hui:17/01/2021. Bernadotte achieved…. He is known for his mental illness and psychotic episodes which plagued him throughout his life. [37][38] In fact, he did what he had been ordered to do, and more fundamental responsibility for his absence rests upon the ambiguous and indirect orders issued by Berthier and Napoleon's unawareness of the Prussian position. Découvrez gratuitement l'arbre généalogique de Charles XIV de SUÈDE pour tout savoir sur ses origines et son histoire familiale. As a consequence, Bernadotte's table fair was considered poor by his brother marshals and while others dined on fine service and employed chefs, Bernadotte habitually used his own money to pay for food for his troops, and to give money awards to those who merited recognition. [54] Due to this near fatal wound, Bernadotte was invalided to the rear and missed the remainder of the Polish Campaign. In pursuance of these orders, Bernadotte, separately from Davout, left Naumburg at dawn on the morning of the 14th for Dornburg and marched towards Apolda, which he reached by 16:00. [71], Bernadotte as Crown Prince, painting by Fredric Westin, On 2 November 1810 Bernadotte made his solemn entry into Stockholm, and on 5 November he received the homage of the Riksdag of the Estates, and he was adopted by King Charles XIII under the name of "Charles John" (Karl Johan). He was a king for 72 years. Speech of the King on the day of taking the oaths of allegiance and homage, 19 May 1818. Pp. Hårdstedt, Martin (2016). Moreover, none of Napoleon's brothers were interested in going to Sweden and his nephews were too young, as the Swedes did not want the hazards of minority rule in the event King Charles died prematurely. [84], The infirmity of the old King and the dissensions in the Privy Council of Sweden placed the government, and especially the control of foreign policy, entirely in his hands. [64], With Bernadotte having returned to Paris, the Walcheren Campaign (July 1809) caused the French ministry in the absence of the emperor to entrust him with the defense of Antwerp with both regular French and Dutch troops along with the National Guard. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. It was apparent almost as soon as Charles XIII was crowned that the Swedish branch of the House of Holstein-Gottorp would die with him. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Dansette Durand Erlanger Meyer Mongrédien Oldenbourg … After the decisive Battle of Leipzig (October 1813), Napoleon’s first great defeat, Charles John succeeded in defeating the Danes in a swift campaign and forced King Frederick VI of Denmark to sign the Treaty of Kiel (January 1814), which transferred Norway to the Swedish crown. He married Désirée Clary in August 1798, the daughter of a Marseilles merchant, and once engaged to Napoleon, and Joseph Bonaparte's sister-in-law. His foreign policy inaugurated a long and favourable period of peace, based on good relations with Russia and Great Britain. He served with distinction in Italy and Germany, and was briefly Minister of War. pp. Bernadotte's Army of the North would continue to guard Berlin and keep watch on Davout's forces in Hamburg while the Allies, in accordance with the plan conceived at Trachenberg, maneuvered toward Napoleon's army at Leipzig. [12], By 1794 he was promoted to brigadier, attached to the Army of Sambre-et-Meuse. Born in Pau in southern France, Bernadotte joined the French Royal Army in 1780. Douze moments clés de l'histoire de France. Louis XIV was born on September 5, 1638, in Saint-Germaine-en-Laye, France. Afterwards, Bernadotte was accused of deliberately refusing to support Davout, who had unexpectedly encountered the Prussian main army at Auerstädt, out of jealousy, and Napoleon, if reminiscences from St. Helena may be believed, once intended to put Bernadotte before a court-martial. The family name was originally du Poey (or de Pouey), but was changed to Bernadotte—a surname of an ancestress at the beginning of the 17th century. [120], The novel was filmed as Désirée in 1954, with Marlon Brando as Napoleon, Jean Simmons as Désirée, and Michael Rennie as Bernadotte. pp. Bernadotte played a significant role in the French victory at Austerlitz, and was made Prince of Pontecorvo as a reward. IX Corps rallied and played a further role in the battle. Louis XIV, the highly-feted “Sun King”, was renowned for his political and cultural influence and for raising France to a new level of prominence in seventeenth-century Europe. CHARLES XIV. In the Battle of Wagram, in which the French defeated the Austrians, he lost more than one-third of his soldiers and then returned to Paris “for reasons of health” but obviously in deep disfavour. This was seen by many as a protest against unnecessary spending and the king's authority. The Danish prince Christian August had been elected crown prince but died suddenly in 1810, and the Swedes turned to Napoleon for advice. This put Norway into a union with Sweden, which lasted for almost a century before being peacefully dissolved in 1905. p. 12. He became Lord and Master of all Swedish orders of chivalry upon his accession to the throne. [17] Further difficulties with Berthier, and being saddled with ill-prepared Saxons, combined with an illness, compelled Bernadotte to beg for release from service. Cette opération est réalisée dans l’antichambre de l’Œil de bœuf, qui jouxte la chambre du Roi. An important exception is Taillevent, the much referred to author of Le Viandier and the chef to Phillipe VI, Charles V, and Charles VI in fourteenth-century France. [66] With Antwerp bristling with cannon and numerous defenders, and with the Army of Antwerp whipped into fighting shape, the British, vexed by poor leadership and with half the army immobilized with fever thanks to the insalubrious islands upon which they were quartered, realized that it was no longer possible to close the Scheldt, or take Antwerp, and withdrew their forces. Chaque numéro retrace la vie d'un grand personnage de l'histoire et met en lumière des lieux hautement emblématiques du patrimoine. Charles II died after promising the throne to Louis’ 16 year old grandson, Philip of Anjou. [116][117][118] However, it is true that Bernadotte, for reasons of discretion publicly, proclaimed himself in 1797 "a Republican both by principle and conviction" who would “to the moment of my death, oppose all Royalists and enemies to the Directory". 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